The Winnifred Eaton Archive is an accessible, fully searchable, digital scholarly edition of the collected works of Winnifred Eaton Babcock Reeve, best known for the popular Japanese romances she signed “Onoto Watanna.” It comprises page images and transcriptions of over 300 located publications and manuscripts, as well as supplemental materials that will aid students and scholars of Eaton’s work. Ultimately, it aims to collect all known publications, manuscripts, and films by Eaton in one location.
The original Winnifred Eaton Digital Archive was created by Jean Lee Cole (Loyola University Maryland) in 2004 in conjunction with the University of Virginia E-text Center. It contained edited transcriptions of two serialized novels and dozens of periodical publications held in the Winnifred Eaton Reeve Fonds at the University of Calgary and/or discovered by Cole over the previous decade through manual searching. These texts were encoded using the Textual Encoding Initiative P4 schema. These texts are still available in the UVa Text Collection accessible through the University of Virginia Libraries’ VIRGO catalog.
In the Winnifred Eaton Archive’s second phase, Mary Chapman (University of British Columbia), together with her research team in collaboration with Cole, updated Cole’s original archive to conform with the Textual Encoding Initiative P5 schema and added edited encoded transcriptions of dozens of additional periodical publications she discovered, as well as additional manuscripts held in the Winnifred Eaton Reeve Fonds. Chapman also added to the site biographical information, a bibliography, a timeline, a list of pseudonyms, a copy of a film for which Eaton wrote the screenplay, and numerous photographs relevant to Eaton and her family. The aim of the Archive is to provide a full survey of Eaton’s work--its generic and stylistic range, its aesthetic experiment, as well as its often problematic politics.
The Winnifred Eaton Archive is organized into exhibits that roughly correspond to periods in Eaton’s career. These periods overlap chronologically somewhat: “Early Experiments” features texts written in the 1890s and early 1900s during Eaton’s writing apprenticeship in Montreal and Jamaica, and/or before she had taken up her identity as “Onoto Watanna”; “Playing Japanese” collects all texts written on Japanese subjects and themes from 1896 until 1922; “New York Years” collects texts marking a period of reinvention, from 1901-1916 after the novelty of Eaton’s Japanese romances had faded; “Alberta” collects texts written about Western ranch country, during her years living off and on in Alberta, roughly from her marriage to Frank Reeve in 1917 until her death in 1954; and finally, “In Hollywood” collects her screenplays, treatments, extant films, as well as fiction about the movie business written from 1916-1935.
The following principles and practices are adapted from The Map of Early Modern London’s “Mission Statement” written by Janelle Jenstad and the MoEML Team.

Our Audience and Contributors

The Winnifred Eaton Archive is committed to providing complete, current, and reliable information that is both suitable for scholarly citation and accessible to students, teachers, and community members outside the university. We welcome contributions from scholars, community experts, and advanced students. The site provides an opportunity to contribute transcriptions of and headnotes for all Winnifred Eaton works as well as facsimiles of recently recovered texts by Winnifred Eaton. All contributions (headnotes, editions, etc.) will be refereed.

Our Principles

Open Peer Review

The Winnifred Eaton Archive is committed to new forms of peer review, including cross-reviewing inspired by the The Map of Early Modern London and research apprenticeships. We currently give our reviewers the choice of anonymity or full credit.

Open Access

All of our pages are freely available to anyone with an internet connection and a web browser. We do not charge fees for access or restrict any aspect of our site’s functionality. We link to other open-access resources preferentially. Whenever possible, we supplement what is available from subscription databases by obtaining fresh scans of materials from institutions willing to share their resources with the world and making these scans freely available.

Open-Source and Open-Code

The Winnifred Eaton Archive team makes all of its code and data available to the public. All of the code and stylesheets used to create the web application is available via our Github repository, which also includes the source data for the project. In keeping with The Endings Project as well as to ensure that our data is as interoperable with other projects as possible, the WEA makes available multiple versions of the source XML, all of which can be downloaded from the “Credits and Citations” menu on every page under the “Download” heading.
There are three versions:
  • Source XML: The source XML is basically a duplicate of what is in the Github repository and is exactly the same version of the XML encoded by the project. Note that not all documents will contain a source XML file; some documents are created “on the fly” from larger files during the creation of the “Original” XML.
  • “Original” XML: The “original” XML is a lightly modified version of the source XML. This is a slightly cleaned up version of the source XML with project specific shortcuts resolved and standardized.
  • “Standalone” XML: The “standalone” XML is built from the “original” XML and contains all of the standoff entities (people, organizations, bibliographic citations, and taxonomies) referenced in that document. This means this document is most amenable for re-use.

Transparent Work Practices

We aim to be fully transparent about all Winnifred Eaton Archive work practices. Our extensive documentation gives detailed instructions to team members. These instructions are openly published as a guide to how we work.


We give credit where credit is due, in keeping with the Collaborators’ Bill of Rights and A Student Collaborators’ Bill of Rights. We do not distinguish between paid and unpaid labour. In our view, all paid research assistants deserve credit for their critical input; by the same token, our paid RAs take intellectual responsibility for their work. We do not consider any labour to be mechanical; all labour is critical and worthy of acknowledgement.

Creative Commons License

All of our content is licensed under a CC BY-SA 4.0 license, which gives anyone the right to download and repurpose our content and/or associated mark-up, provided the use is non-commercial and gives full credit to the Winnifred Eaton Archive and its contributors.

Technical Feedback

If you have noticed a bug, typo, or errors on the site or if you have any other feedback, please contact us.

People Mentioned

Mary Chapman

Mary Chapman is the Director of The Winnifred Eaton Archive, a Professor of English, and Academic Director of the Public Humanities Hub at University of British Columbia. She is the author of the award-winning monograph Making Noise, Making News: Suffrage Print Culture and US Modernism (Oxford UP) and of numerous articles about American literature and women writers. She has also edited Becoming Sui Sin Far: Early Fiction, Journalism and Travel Writing by Edith Maude Eaton (McGill-Queen’s UP) and published essays on the Eaton sisters in American Quarterly, MELUS, Legacy, Canadian Literature, and American Periodicals. Her current research project is a microhistory of the Eaton family. For more information, see http://faculty.arts.ubc.ca/mchapman/.

Jean Lee Cole

Jean Lee Cole is Senior Consultant on The Winnifred Eaton Archive, author of The Literary Voices of Winnifred Eaton: Redefining Ethnicity and Authenticity (2002), co-editor of A Japanese Nightingale and Madame Butterfly: Two Orientalist Texts (2002, with Maureen Honey), and editor of the original Winnifred Eaton Digital Archive (2004). She is Professor of English at Loyola University Maryland.

Joey Takeda

Joey Takeda is the Technical Director of The Winnifred Eaton Archive and a Developer at Simon Fraser University’s Digital Humanities Innovation Lab (DHIL). He is a graduate of the M.A. program in English at the University of British Columbia where he specialized in Indigenous and diasporic literature, science and technology studies, and the digital humanities.
A document that has been proofed by the project director. Documents that are published may continue to be subsequently revised.
Ready for Proof
A document that has been transcribed, encoded, validated, and edited, but is awaiting a final proof from the project director before publication.
In Progress
A document that is currently in progress and is not yet ready to be proofed. This may be because the transcription is in progress, a facsimile needs to be added, or for any other reason where the document has content but is not yet ready to be approved by the project director.
A document that has not yet been transcribed or encoded. Do not use if we cannot find or otherwise we believe the text of this document is lost.
Full Revision History
February 03, 2024SLPublishedUpdated amount of texts in archive and added social media links.
August 13, 2020MCPublishedUpdated comments about her racism.
July 29, 2020PublishedUpdated dates.
June 13, 2020PublishedFixing up some of the language regarding XML downloading and adding links.
April 29, 2020MCPublishedadded content.
February 21, 2020MCPublishedadded content.
February 19, 2019JTPublishedCreated file.